Nationalism can be both a unifying and a dividing force. In the second half of the 19th century, nationalism led to the unification of Italy and of Germany. However, in the Austrian, Ottoman, and Russian empires, nationalism sowed the seeds of unrest.
What is nationalism? How does nationalism serve as a unifying or divisive force? What factors contributed to the unification of Italy? What factors contributed to the unification of Germany? How did ethnic diversity impact the Austro-Hungarian Empire? How did ethnic diversity lead to the weakening of the ottoman Empire? How did Russian leaders deal with the issue of nationalism in Russia?